Appendix 1 - Main directions in cross-cultural research on advertising
1. Sociologic approach – focus on a specific social aspect as it is presented by advertising in a country or cross-culturally in order to identify the attitude of a society towrads it. Content analysis is the preferred method in studies such as: Gilly, Sex Roles in Advertising: A Comparison of Television Advertisements in Australia, Mexico and the United States, (1988). Parameters used in order to account for gender roles are: sex, age, marital status, profession, credibility, authority, help (receives / offers), advise (idem), role (relative, partener, celebrity etc.).
2. Ethnologic approach – studies start from a set of values detected for a society in order to explain the differences
present in the advertising cross-culturally or in order to explain the specificity of advertising in one country. Factual data such as histiry, economy, cultural are used in order to account for the conclusions. Examples and reference points: Cheng & Schweitzer (1996) Cultural Values Reflected in Chinese and U.S. Television Commercials; Caillat & Muller (1996), The Influence of Culture on American and British Advertising; for Scandinavia, Wiles, Wiles & Tjernlund (1996) The Ideology of Advertising: The United States and Sweden.
3. Psychologic approach – the purpose is to find a deeper explanation of differences in advertising cross-culturally. Their preferred method is to link advertising appeals with cultural observations. Examples: Zandpour, Campos & Catalano (1994), cited above, which considers also Denmark, but not as a main focus of the research; Albers-Miller & Gelb (1996) an analysis based on Pollay´s values for printed commercials in Chile, Brasil, Taiwan, Japan, India, Israel, Mexico, United States, France, Finland and South Africa.
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