4. Danish advertising – cultural value analysis
4.4. Cultural values
As it have been mentioned above, coders were instructed to associate each commercial, while watching it with a main value from Pollay's list. Often coders complained about the difficulty of choosing only one value in order to characterize a commercial, noting that usually along with a dominating value at least a secondary one is present. In order to handle such situation which would potentially distort the results they could indicate also a secondary value accompanying and shading the message. In the table below only main values have been taken into account, but the data may be corrected by secondary values analysis. A total of occurrences for each value has been calculated from the analysis of various questionnaires. In the table is displayed only the average frequency obtained from this total. The ratio is also based on the average frequency for each value.
The initial corpus of 125 commercials could not be preserved for this analysis. After the elimination of those who have not been described by all coders a number of 112 commercials could be obtained, accounting for the following values:
|Main value identified||Average frequency||Ratio|
|Security & safety||10,66||9,51%|
As the table above displays the first most frequent values are those predicted in hypothesis 2 & 4: family (12,28%), security & safety (9,51%), paradoxically tradition and technology with the same score (8,62%) and enjoinment (7,43%). Previous studies show various results. In the July-August 2002 study based on a similar (but not identical) list of values family is top-value (20%), followed by effective and convenient, which could be related to the predominance of the latter values in the 1998 corpus. On the other hand, the values listed in Figge's study (1998 corpus) are different. Family and friends accounts for only 6,7%, while enjoyment seems to be top-value with 16,7 % along with quality (14,4%) and economy (12%). Safety and tradition also show a very low score (1,1% each).
It is obvious that the tools used for the codification of data have an important influence on the results. On the other hand from the confrontation of corpora accounting for different moments and seasons of the year it is possible to make correlations, more or less expected between product categories, values involved in the advertising and the moment. It is obvious that the high occurrence of the value family and traditional, along with the presence of present-like product categories is related to the special nature of Christmas. For the summer corpus the high presence of the family value was related to the entertainment product category (more specific to the travel solutions for entertainment) and often coders hesitated between family and enjoinment. It is also expected for the Christmas season to account for a high score of the value enjoinment.
In some cases it is possible that the nature of the product have influenced the association of the advertisement with a value. A current correlation emerged from the present analysis was between the values nurturance and youth and the product category toys or cookies. Most often the value adventure has been associated with the nature of movie productions (DVD; VHS or cinema) while affiliation with musical genders presented along with products from the subcategory audio CD. The high frequency of the latter product subcategory had a decisive influence on the remarkable score of the value popular (5,65%). Beauty products have been unequivocally and constantly associated with the value ornamental, often without the support of a secondary value.
The correlation of the results displayed above with the secondary value occurrence showed a relevant frequency of three more constant couples: family and tradition, family and enjoinment, modern and technology. Most frequent secondary values have been enjoinment, followed by traditional and popular. Family and technology which have been showed to be top-main values have been mentioned rarely as secondary values.
A very important conclusion drawn from this attempt to identify cultural values in Danish advertising is that indeed Pollay's list need to be restrained in order to achieve more reliable results. There are many overlaps between the items of his lists which might be justified by the technique and the different purposes of Pollay's investigation.
Copyright©2002 Gabriela SAUCIUC, all rights reserved.
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