4. Danish advertising – cultural value analysis
4.1. Definition of terms
Before proceeding with the analysis of empirical data a clarification of the terminology employed in the present paper is required. As in any other field of research different authors may prefer to use different terms while referring to the same issue or aspect of the analysis or at contrary a term may receive various meaning according to authors' views. The use of very common terms without providing a “local” definition leads often to confusion, to the misinterpretation of hypothesis or of the results of a research.
In cross-cultural analysis it is frequent the overlapping of two notions: appeals and values. Some authors seem to use the term appeals for what in this study is considered to be a value. The study of values in advertising was introduced by Pollay in a very comprehensive research aimed to identify cultural values (intended as manifestations of the content or themes) present in American advertising during the 20th century  . Pollay's values became a classical point of reference and since then the initial list including 42 items has been modified and shortened by various authors who tried to adapt it to the purposes of their own analysis  . Using Pollay's list and the modified list proposed by Chang & Schweitzer, in his research Stephen Dahl refers to the same variables calling them appeals.
Appeal seems to be the traditional term, used before the introduction of cultural values approach, but in order to distinguish better between such closed terms, one can rely upon the following definition:
… persuasion in advertising rests on the psychological appeal to the consumer. An appeal is something that makes the product particularly attractive or interesting to the consumer. Common appeals are security, esteem, fear, sex and sensory pleasure. Appeals generally pinpoint the anticipated reason of the prospect to the product and message.
Advertisers also use the word appeal to describe a general creative emphasis. For example, if the price is emphasised in the ad, then the appeal is value, economy or savings  .
Sometimes labels applied to appeals and labels applied to values overlap leading to confusions – security may be one example. It was listed among appeals in the above definition but it also found as a value in Pollay's list. Appeal is a tool which can be used in the message in order to create, in the mind of the receiver, a bound between the value carried by an appeal and the product advertised. Use of psychological appeals will be found also as type of executional strategy describing a certain way (a how) of message delivery. Kotler distinguishes according to this view tree categories of appeals: emotional, rational and moral. Rational appeals will appeal to the audience’s self-interest, showing that the product will produce the claimed benefits. Messages based on rational appeals will include references to quality, economy, value or performance. Emotional appeals will attempt to awake positive or negative emotions in order to motivate the purchase. Fear, guilt, shame are frequent emotional appeals and in this view is now easy to distinguish values from appeals. Finally moral appeals are addressed to audience’s sense of what is right and proper. 
The relationship between appeals and values is described by Burnett, Wells & Moriarty: “the source for norms is our values. An example of a value is personal security. Possible norms expressing this value range from the bars on the window and double-locked doors in Brooklyn, New York to unlocked cars and homes in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. Values are few in number and are not tied to specific objects or situations (…) Advertisers often refer to core values when selecting their primary appeals”  . The distinction is in consonance with Hofstede's definition of cultural values.
 Pollay, R. W., (1983), Measuring the Cultural Values Manifest in Advertising, in Current Issues and Research in Advertising, J. H. Leigh & C. R. Martin, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, p. 71-92
 Cheng, H. and Schweitzer J. C., (1996), Cultural Values Reflected in Chinese and U.S. Television commercials in Journal of Advertising Research (May/June): 27-44; Dahl, S., (2000), Advertising Appeals in Beer Commercials in the UK, the Netherlands and Germany, Luton, Intercultural Discourse Group - University of Luton; Figge, M., 1999, cit. are just a few examples among many others.
 Wells, Burnett & Moriarty (1995), Advertising – Principles and Practice, Eaglewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, p. 278.
 Kotler Philip (1994, 8th ed.), Marketing Management. Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control, Pretince-Hall International Inc, p. 605.
 Wells, Burnett & Moriarty, 1995: 167.
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